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By Edmund T. Whittaker

First-class therapy of Electrodynamics and Relativity idea from a decent old viewpoint. Whittaker's perspectives are suppressed simply because he was once courageous sufficient to inform the reality in regards to the authentic contributions of Einstein to the Relativity conception (properly attributed to Poincaré and Lorentz).

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However, chapter 2 contains a discussion of the Ishango bone and the Yoruba numerals, and chapter 3 a detailed examination of Egyptian mathematics, all of which were products of ­Africa. Further information on the mathematical traditions of Korea and Japan is available in the second of the two chapters on Chinese mathematics (chapter 7), since these traditions were both heavily influenced by China. 4: The spread of mathematical ideas down the ages 3 Greece 1 2 2a 2b 3 India 1 2 Mesopotamia 1 2 the earliest forms of writing and hieroglyphic numerals Middle Kingdom to New Kingdom: Egyptian mathematics mainly contained in the Moscow and Ahmes papyri Greek and Roman period: Flowering of mathematics at Alexandria Classical period: Beginnings of deductive geometry and number theory Hellenistic period: Growing synthesis of classical, Egyptian, and Babylonian mathematics Sumerian period: Beginnings of cuneiform numerals First Babylonian dynasty: Early algebra, commerical arithmetic, and geometry from clay tablets New Babylonian and Persian periods: Mathematics and astronomy Seleucid dynasty: Hellenistic mathematics Harappan period: Protomathematics from bricks, baths, etc.

16 The relative seclusion that India had enjoyed for centuries was broken by the invasion of the Persians under Darius around 513 BC. In the ensuing six centuries, except for a century and a half of security under the Mauryan dynasty, India was subjected to incursions by the Greeks, the Sakas, the Pahlavas, and the Kusanas. Despite the turbulence, the period offered an opportunity for a close and productive contact between India and the West. Beginning with the appearance of the vast Persian empire, which touched Greece at one extremity and India at the other, tributes from Greece and from the frontier hills of India found their way to the same The History of Mathematics 19 imperial treasure houses at Ecbatana or Susa.

There are references to the gnomon in other traditions, for example, the seminal Chinese text Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, and it was referred to earlier by the Duke of Zhou (eleventh century BC). “Gnomon” also refers to the triangular part of a sundial that casts the shadow. 15. In the concluding paragraph Friberg (2005, p. , limestone chippings and pottery used as writing material] and papyri with Euclidean mathematics existed side by side with demotic and Greek papyri with Babylonian style mathematics is important for the reason that this surprising circumstance is an indication that when the Greeks themselves claimed that they got their mathematics from Egypt, they can really have meant that they got their mathematical inspiration from Egyptian texts with the mathematics of the Babylonian type.

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