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By Rowen D. Frandson, W. Lee Wilke, Anna Dee Fails

Presents veterinary, animal technological know-how, agriculture, and veterinary technician scholars with a accomplished but transparent connection with realizing the basics of anatomy and body structure of farm animals.

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The importance of this exit of K+ is illustrated by the effects of changes in the concentration of extracellular K+ on the electrical activity of the heart. Abnormal increases in extracellular K+ concentration, such as may occur with kidney disease, are often associated with abnormal electrical activity of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), and these can threaten life. In the typical cell in resting conditions, sodium and potassium are the major determinants of the membrane potential. However, in some cell types and in certain conditions, the membrane permeability to other ions, hence passage of these ions across the membrane, may be a significant contributor to the membrane potential.

Robert Hooke of England used the term cell to describe the cavities he saw in sections of cork. In 1665, Hooke published a description of cork cells based on a study done with his improved compound microscope. ” The word cell comes from the Latin cella meaning small chamber. In biology, particularly animal biology, the term cell refers more specifically to the individual units of living structure rather than the compartments that may contain them. There actually are no compartments as such in most tissues (with the exception of bone and cartilage), but the living units, cells, are found in groups in which mainly adjacent cells restrain individual cells.

These proteins are aquaporins. If the intracellular fluid within a cell has a higher concentration of undiffusible solutes than the interstitial fluid bathing the cell, water will move into the cell from the interstitial fluid until the concentrations are the same on both sides of the membrane. As the water moves in, the volume in the cell increases. The driving force moving water from the solution on the side of the lower solute concentration to the side with the higher solute concentration is osmotic pressure.

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