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By Christopher Tong (Eds.)

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Additional info for Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design. Models of Innovative Design, Reasoning about Physical Systems, and Reasoning about Geometry

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Much has been learned regard­ ing qualitatively reasoning about physical systems in general. We have initial answers to such questions as: how to qualitatively simulate certain classes of physical systems; how to derive aggregate system behavior from the behavior of the parts; how to determine the function of the system given its aggregate be­ havior and a description of the system’s context; etc. Much also has learned about (qualitatively) reasoning about the geometry of physical objects in general: how to satisfy placement and sizing constraints; how to satisfy con­ straints involving forces being applied at various points in space; how to satisfy kinematic constraints on how physical structures can move; how to analyze stresses based on shape; and how to simulate a mechanism’s movement through space.

One reason is that the most naturally acquirable knowledge might not necessarily be in a directly ap­ plicable form. This is often so in case-based reasoning; old designs and design process traces can be stored away fairly easily (if stored verbatim) in a case database, but then this leaves the problem of how to use these old cases to help solve a new design problem. ). , the generalized knowledge is not quite operational and must be made so at run-time; the (overly) generalized knowledge is not quite correct in all the circumstances to which it appears to be applicable; etc.

Geometry-based analysis. That designed artifacts have geometric features means that some of the analysis processes performed during design will involve geometric reasoning, including: static and dynamic analysis of stresses (based on shape), and kinematic simulation of mechanisms. The conventional approach to analyzing stress is finite element analysis. However, this method requires a grid as an input, and which grid is best varies with the problem. , a plate without a hole in it). These known cases have as­ sociated (pre-computed) stress analyses, which are then used as part of the stress analysis data for the overall object.

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