By Bertram G. Katzung
The most present, authoritative, and accomplished pharmacology publication for clinical, pharmacy, and different wellbeing and fitness technological know-how scholars. extensively revered for its readability, comprehensiveness, and association, this pharmacology path ebook provides the fundamental thoughts that scholars want to know concerning the technological know-how of pharmacology and their software. makes a speciality of the elemental ideas of every drug team in addition to the medical selection and use of gear in sufferers and the tracking in their results.
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Extra resources for Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, Ninth Edition
The existence of multiple receptor classes and subtypes for the same endogenous ligand has created important opportunities for drug development. For example, propranolol, a selective antagonist of -adrenergic receptors, can reduce an accelerated heart rate without preventing the sympathetic nervous system from causing vasoconstriction, an effect mediated by 1 receptors. The principle of drug selectivity may even apply to structurally identical receptors expressed in different cells, eg, receptors for steroids such as estrogen (Figure 2–6).
Quantal dose-effect plots. Shaded boxes (and the accompanying curves) indicate the frequency distribution of doses of drug required to produce a specified effect; ie, the percentage of animals that required a particular dose to exhibit the effect. The open boxes (and the corresponding curves) indicate the cumulative frequency distribution of responses, which are lognormally distributed. The quantal dose-effect curve is often characterized by stating the median effective dose (ED50), the dose at which 50% of individuals exhibit the specified quantal effect.
Beneficial and Toxic Effects Mediated by Identical Receptors But in Different Tissues or by Different Effector Pathways Many drugs produce both their desired effects and adverse effects by acting on a single receptor type in different tissues. Examples discussed in this book include: digitalis glycosides, which act by inhibiting Na+/K+ ATPase in cell membranes; methotrexate, which inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase; and glucocorticoid hormones. Three therapeutic strategies are used to avoid or mitigate this sort of toxicity.