By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Commission on Life Sciences, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Biologic Markers, Subcommittee on Immunotoxicology
Are environmental pollution threatening the human immune approach? Researchers are speedily imminent definitive solutions to this query, by using biologic markers - refined evaluation instruments that may revolutionize detection and prevention of definite ailments. This quantity, 3rd in a sequence on biologic markers, specializes in the human immune approach and its reaction to environmental toxicants. The authoring committee offers path for carrying on with improvement of biologic markers, with innovations for making use of markers to immunotoxicology in people and instructed outlines for medical and box reviews. This accomplished, up to date quantity can be useful to experts in toxicology and immunology and to biologists and investigators concerned with the improvement of biologic markers.
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Extra resources for Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology
There are a number of hereditary syndromes of immune deficiency. Occasionally, immune deficiencies result from other environmental causes. Stress, for example, from loud noise, electric shock, infant-mother separation, overcrowding, the death of a spouse, or severe emotional or mental dysfunction could be associated with immunologic abnormality. Hereditary and environmental factors must be evaluated carefully in the assessment of suspected chemical-induced immune dysfunction. The putative causes of immune modulation, particularly in humans, are diverse, and therefore, they must at least include emotional distress as a contributing factor.
1990) suggested that association of unpleasant job-related conditions might be the underlying basis of some apparent hypersusceptibility responses in workers. Animal models show responses can be immunosuppressive (Dantzer and Kelley, 1989) or immunoreactive (Koehler, 1985). In experimental animals, immunosuppression can be conditioned by pairing a stimulus with an immune suppressive agent, such as cyclophosphamide phosphamide (Ader and Cohen, 1991). Modification of homeostasis in immune system organs or direct interaction of neurotransmitter such as epinephrine, serotonin endorphins, enkephalins, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine with the cells of the immune system can occur.
A false-negative result can therefore be obtained if specific immune markers are sought long after exposure. The persistence of immune markers varies widely among the different humoral mediators and cellular components, and it can depend on conditions within the organism. Highly reactive humoral mediators that act locally (such as prostaglandin) are often inactivated within minutes of their formation, even though their inactivation products can circulate in the system much longer. Serum IgE is cleared more quickly than is serum IgG, but IgE bound to mast cells or basophils persists much longer than any serum protein does.