By Ronald M. Atlas, Jim C. Philp
A desirable exam of study and its real-world program. • offers worldwide viewpoint in insurance of a vast variety of bioremediation applied sciences together with bioinjection, bioaugmentation, and phytoremediation • Examines sensible examples of bioremediation program, together with suitable case reports • Discusses the interactions of felony, medical, and engineering rules in the back of use of bioremediation for cleanup of infected land and aquifers
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Extra info for Bioremediation
Until 1996, no aerobic enrichment cultures capable of utilizing chlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins had been obtained. This changed when it was shown that Sphingomonas strain R W l converted 1-chloro-DD (1-CDD) and 2CDD to 3-chlorocatechol and 4-chlorocatechol, respectively, and catechol (Fig. 20) (140). Now both aerobic and anaerobic mechanisms of l o x i n biodegradation are known (70). The &oxygenation of monochlorinated DDs occurs on both the halogen-substituted aromatic nucleus and the nonsubstituted nucleus (54, 57).
Other chlorophenols are used in the synthesis of pesticides, resins, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. Aerobically, PCP is converted by a bacterial monooxygenase to tetrachlorohydroquinone through the oxidative elimination of the chlorine para to the phenolic hydroxyl. Anaerobically, PCP is reductively dechlorinated stepwise to phenol. Phenol can be metabolized further anaerobi- cally to methane and COz. , in soil subject to bioremediation by a white rot fungus, methylation products including pentachloroanisole were produced (130).
4,5-Dichlorocatechol is a strong inhibitor of chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase. These compounds are therefore critical recalcitrant intermediates in the aerobic mineralization of hchloro- and possibly also trichloroand higher congeners. 1,2,3,6,7,8-HexaCDDc1 Peri-dechlorination pathway 1,2,3,4,6,7$-HeptaCDD CI clq)$Jcl CI c1 Cl + 1-monoCDD ci 1,2,3,4,7,8-HexaCDD I ,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-0ctaCDD 1,2,3,4,6,7-HexaCDD51 5 + w N dl CI C' ... I ... i dl 1,2,3,4,6,8-HexaCDD 1,2,3,4,6,7,9-HeptaCDD .. : ... , i i.