Download Blood: Physiology and Circulation (The Human Body) by Kara Rogers PDF

By Kara Rogers

Even supposing its ubiquity within the human physique could make it look unremarkable, easily placed, blood makes existence attainable. It nourishes cells in the course of the physique and transports carbon dioxide to the lungs. with out it, the physique will be not able to struggle disorder and an infection or functionality in any respect. Readers are invited to stick to the process this amazing fluid because it circulates during the physique and find out about its part elements. precise diagrams complement the textual content and make allowance readers a glimpse into the anatomy and life-sustaining homes of human blood.

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Additional resources for Blood: Physiology and Circulation (The Human Body)

Sample text

Iron also 56 7 The Fluid of Life 7 is a necessary component of hemoglobin. Approximately one-quarter of a gram of iron is needed for the production of a pint of blood. Other substances, required in trace amounts, are needed to catalyze the chemical reactions by which red cells are produced. Important among these are several vitamins such as riboflavin, vitamin B12, and folic acid, necessary for the maturation of the developing red cell; and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), required for the synthesis of hemoglobin.

They enter the circulation through lymphatic channels that drain principally into the thoracic lymph duct, which has a connection with the venous system. Unlike other blood cells, some lymphocytes may leave and reenter the circulation, surviving for about one year or more. The principal paths of recirculating lymphocytes are through the spleen or lymph nodes. Lymphocytes freely leave the blood to enter lymphoid tissue, passing barriers that prevent the passage of other blood cells. When stimulated by antigen and certain other agents, some lymphocytes are activated and become capable of cell division (mitosis).

In the bone marrow, granulocytes and monocytes arise from a common precursor under the influence of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Monocytes leave the bone marrow and circulate in the blood. After a period of hours, the monocytes enter the tissues, where they develop into macrophages, the tissue phagocytes that constitute the reticuloendothelial system (or macrophage system). Macrophages occur in almost all tissues of the body: those in the liver are called Kupffer cells, those in the skin Langerhans cells.

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