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By S C Bishop; C.A.B. International.; et al

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Hereditas 127, 67–73. , Völk, H. J. (1995) A “minimal essential Mhc” and an “unrecognized Mhc”: Two extremes in selection for polymorphism. Immunological Reviews 143, 63–88. , Beck, S. and Salomonsen, J. (1999a) Gene organisation determines evolution of function in the chicken MHC. Immunological Reviews 167, 101–117. , Zoorob, R. and Beck, S. (1999b) The chicken B locus is a minimal essential major histocompatibility complex. Nature 401, 923–925. A. P. (2007) The central leucine-rich repeat region of chicken TLR16 dictates unique ligand specificity and speciesspecific interaction with TLR2.

Thus, an interaction exists between the average host genotype and the disease epidemiology: transmission of infection between animals depends on host genotype, but the expression of the host resistance genotype depends on the prevailing force of infection. If this interaction is not accounted for, incorrect inferences may be made regarding the benefits of selecting for resistance. This chapter briefly reviews the role of epidemiological modelling in understanding disease processes and the modelling approaches available.

1986; Mosmann 24 P. Kaiser and Coffman, 1989) and has been central to our understanding of adaptive immune responses in biomedical model species. The paradigm has also been extended to include different antibody isotypes, CD8+ T cells, DCs, etc. However, the applicability of the paradigm to other mammalian species is less clear, at least in certain aspects. , 2005), in that cytokine responses to an intracellular pathogen were predominated by IFN-g (a Th1 cytokine) and those to an extracellular pathogen by IL-4 and IL-13 (Th2 cytokines).

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