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This was not a new question. In 1811 Telford confessed that he could not ensure the safety of bridges in the Highlands of Scotland from the maximum spates he was beginning to think were possible (Ruddock, 1979). If he did it would be uneconomic. ’ These words are still true almost 200 years later. With climatic change possibly occurring, the prediction of floods is a risky business. It appears that large floods may happen more frequently than first thought. 2. In the discussion arising from this paper, Canadian guidelines were quoted as ranging between 1 in 200 years for long freeway bridges to 1 in 25 years for short local bridges.

Page 41 It should be appreciated that the bridge does not alter the elevation of the water surface or the energy line at section 0, nor at section 4. By definition (in this book) these two sections are located outside the reach affected by the structure. It is only between these two sections that the values are changed as a result of the obstruction to flow. 3 Afflux, piezometric head loss and energy loss Regardless of whether it is a proposed or existing bridge that is to be analysed, most hydraulic investigations require an estimate of the change in water level caused by the structure.

And Fowler, D. (1989) Rains wash away Inverness rail bridge. New Civil Engineer, 9 February, 5. A. (1918) Obstruction of bridge piers to the flow of water. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 82, 334–395. Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) (1975) Flood Studies Report. Vol I: Hydrological Studies. Vol II: Meteorological Studies. Vol III: Flood Routing Studies. Vol IV: Hydrological Data. Vol V: Maps. NERC, London. R. ) (1973) Guide to Bridge Hydraulics, Roads and Transportation Association of Canada/University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

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