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E. it is acidic. Examples of salts from strong acids and weak bases include ammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate. Consider a solution of ammonium chloride, NH+4 Cl−. This is the salt of the strong acid, hydrochloric acid, and the weak base, ammonia. The equilibrium present in water is: 32 1 Propanoic acid can be used to prepare the salt potassium propanoate, CH3CH2COOK. Explain why potassium propanoate solution has a pH greater than 7. In your answer, you should mention the two equilibria involved.

The standard state of a substance is its most stable form at a pressure of 1 atm and usually at a temperature of 298 K.  10 of the SQA Data Booklet. Now let us consider how the standard enthalpies of formation can be used to calculate the standard enthalpy change for a chemical reaction. First, we calculate the total standard enthalpy of formation of all the products. We then calculate the total standard enthalpy of formation of all the reactants. The difference between the two totals is the standard enthalpy change for the reaction.

They can vibrate, but they cannot move from one place to another. Solids are therefore highly ordered. Gases, however, have very high entropy values. Gases contain particles that have 38 39 Inorganic and physical chemistry: Reaction feasibility 1 INORGANIC AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY complete freedom of movement and, as a result, are highly disordered. The entropies of liquids lie between these two extremes. The graph to the right shows how the entropy of a substance varies with temperature. STANDARD ENTHALPY OF FORMATION We know that the enthalpy change (∆H) for the reaction R → P is given by: ∆H = HP − HR where HP and HR are the enthalpies of the products and reactants, respectively.

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