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By Frank Lorenz Muller

This ebook analyzes the British perspective to at least one of the dominant problems with 19th-century Europe. either in Germany and past, politicians grappled with the German Question—the dual challenge of uniting the various German states and of intergrating the consequent Reich into the ecu states method. This unique learn explores how the makers of British international coverage answered to those concerns among the July Revolution of 1830 and Bismarkch's "Wars of German Unification," and explains what sort of united Germany they desired to see.

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29 In the light of these observations and evaluations, Palmerston came to regard Germany’s liberal-national opposition of the early 1830s as a dangerous and highly explosive charge. It had to be treated with extreme caution. Overly repressive measures on the part of the Diet, he feared, might have calamitous consequences. 30 Palmerston’s alarm at the threat of a revolutionary war in Germany must be seen against this background. ’31 Thus, even if the Foreign Secretary may not have endorsed without qualification the rejection of the German opposition by his more conservative diplomats in Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Vienna, there can be no question of his being a protector pure and simple of the German movement of opposition.

As his correspondence with Lamb on the preferability of constitutional states in Germany indicates, Palmerston believed that specific desirable characteristics relevant to these interests were more frequently found in constitutional forms of government. ’ Lamb, however, was not convinced. ‘Constitutional states from the foundation of Rome down to the present hour have been the most warlike and quarrelsome of any,’ he replied and countered the argument of their alleged Anglophilia by referring to her ‘inveterate enemy’, the United States of America.

In the Far East, the clash between Britain’s commercial interests and China’s opposition to the opium trade led to the First Opium War. After some carefully targeted gunboat action, the Chinese agreed to farreaching concessions which were recorded in the treaty of Nanking of 1842. Another extra-European issue causing considerable concern for British diplomacy was relations with the United States. The Webster– Ashburton Treaty of 1842, which settled the delineation of the eastern section of the US–Canadian border, considerably improved the acrimonious relationship between London and Washington.

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