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A tsunami can become a wall of water more than 33 feet (10 m) high on approaching the shore. The height depends partly on the shape of the beach and the depth of coastal waters. If the wave reaches dry land, it can inundate vast areas and cause considerable damage. A 1960 earthquake off the coast of Chile caused a tsunami that swept away communities along 500 miles (800 km) of the coast of South America. Twenty-two hours later the waves reached the coast of Japan, where they damaged coastal towns.

5 Major earthquake. Causes extensive damage. 0 Considered a great earthquake. Water service is disrupted. 5 Causes very extensive damage. 0 Very great earthquake. Total destruction. 68 EARTHQUAKES VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES 69 COMPARISON OF THE SIZE OF THE WAVE WHEN THE WAVE HITS THE COAST Violent Seas A The word tsunami comes from Japanese large earthquake or volcanic eruption can cause a tsunami, which means “wave in the harbor” in Japanese. Tsunamis travel very fast, up to 500 miles per hour (800 km/h).

VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES 51 50 STUDY AND PREVENTION Preparations for Disaster WIND AND RAIN olcanic eruptions are dangerous to surrounding populations for two basic reasons. One danger is posed by the volcanic material that flows down the sides of the volcano (lava flows and mudslides), and the other danger is from the volcano's pyroclastic material, especially ash. Ash fallout can bury entire cities. Experts have developed an effective series of prevention and safety measures for people living in volcanic areas.

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