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By Philip Grierson

This book covers levels of the coinage, gold, silver, and copper coinage, forms and inscriptions, and ruler representations. Tables of values corresponding with a number of instances within the empire's heritage, an inventory of Byzantine emperors, and a word list also are supplied.

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64), and thenceforward representations of Christ are a regular feature of the coinage. Some of the types derive from well-known icons of the capital. The earliest seated Christ probably reproduced the figure in the conch of the apse above the imperial throne in the Chrysotriklinos of the Great Palace, initially set up under Justin II and restored between 856 and 866, while the bust of Christ Pantocrator (Fig. 13) had first been used in the post-Iconoclastic period to decorate the summit of the dome in Byzantine churches (Fig.

24), later represented inside the walls of Constantinople the “God-Guarded City” (Fig. 18); as a bust holding a medallion of Christ (Nikopoios; Fig. 23); as a standing figure holding in her arms the infant Jesus (Hodegetria; Fig. 66); and as a seated figure, usually with a medallion of Christ 66 Romanus III. 44 g (damaged). The reverse has a standing figure of the emperor. ” 2:1 35 67 Ivory icon of the Virgin Hodegetria. Utrecht, Archepiscopal Museum. Mid-10th century. on her lap. Her costume is always the same: a long-sleeved tunic and a veil (the maphorion), which covers her head and falls to the level of her ankles.

4, 5). In the Isaurian period, with the replacement of the cross by a second imperial figure, the latter’s name and sometimes his relationship to the reigning emperor are given. Leo IV’s nomismata, for example, have a long inscription identifying on the reverse “Leo the grandfather, Constantine the father,” and on the obverse, “Leo the son and grandson, Constantine the young” (Fig. 10). , IHS XPS REX REGNANTIVM [“Jesus Christ, king of those who rule”]), but later wholly in Greek. Occasionally there are long inscriptions reading from one side of the coin to the other.

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