By Mary Jones
Totally revised and up-to-date content material matching the recent Cambridge overseas Examinations Biology 9700 syllabus for first educating in 2014 and primary exam in 2016. counseled by means of Cambridge foreign Examinations, the Fourth variation of the AS/A point Biology Coursebook comprehensively covers all of the wisdom and abilities scholars desire throughout the Biology 9700 direction (first exam 2016). Written by way of popular specialists in Biology instructing, the textual content is written in an obtainable variety with overseas newcomers in brain. The Coursebook is simple to navigate with colour-coded sections to distinguish among AS and a degree content material. Self-assessment questions enable freshmen to trace their development and exam-style questions aid newcomers to organize completely for his or her examinations. modern contexts are mentioned all through bettering the relevance and curiosity for newcomers.
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Extra info for Cambridge International AS and A Level Biology Coursebook with CD-ROM
The membrane system is highly organised. It consists of fluid-filled sacs called thylakoids which spread out like sheets in three dimensions. In places, the thylakoids form flat, disc-like structures that stack up like piles of coins many layers deep, forming structures called grana (from their appearance in the light microscope; ‘grana’ means grains). These membranes contain the photosynthetic pigments and electron carriers needed for the light dependent stage of photosynthesis. Both the membranes and whole chloroplasts can change their orientation within the cell in order to receive the maximum amount of light.
The polar, hydrophilic R groups remain on the outside of the molecule. 24). 24 A section through part of a globular protein molecule. The polypeptide chain coils up with hydrophilic R groups outside and hydrophobic ones inside, which makes the molecule soluble. Many globular proteins have roles in metabolic reactions. Their precise shape is the key to their functioning. Enzymes, for example, are globular proteins. Many other protein molecules do not curl up into a ball, but form long strands. These are known as fibrous proteins.
The only common non-reducing sugar is sucrose. Reducing sugars are so called because they can carry out a type of chemical reaction known as reduction. In the process they are oxidised. This is made use of in the Benedict’s test using Benedict’s reagent. Benedict’s reagent is copper(II) sulfate in an alkaline solution and has a distinctive blue colour. Reducing sugars reduce soluble blue copper sulfate, containing copper(II) ions, to insoluble brickred copper oxide, containing copper(I). The copper oxide is seen as a brick-red precipitate.