By Curtis D. Klaassen
Fashioned because the most reliable within the box, Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology is now on hand in a brand new 6th variation that equips you with an unsurpassed remedy of contemporary toxicology, together with the foundations, strategies, mechanisms, and modes of inspiration which are the root of the self-discipline. entire and entirely modern, the hot variation of Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology continues to be your most sensible resource for the newest breakthroughs during this fast-changing box. * the recent version of this finest within the box is extra important than ever * particular assurance of the advances in molecular biology and pharmacogenetics * extended assurance of danger overview * assurance of on-line references, as well as conventional print magazine and assessment articles * New bankruptcy outlines * New 2-color layout
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Additional resources for Casarett and Doull's toxicology: the basic science of poisons Sixth Edition
Whatever response is selected for measurement, the relationship between the degree of response of 2996R_ch02_017-022 18 4/11/01 9:38 AM Page 18 UNIT 1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TOXICOLOGY the biological system and the amount of toxicant administered assumes a form that occurs so consistently as to be considered the most fundamental and pervasive concept in toxicology. From a practical perspective, there are two types of dose–response relationships: (1) the individual dose–response relationship, which describes the response of an individual organism to varying doses of a chemical, often referred to as a “graded” response because the measured effect is continuous over a range of doses, and (2) a quantal dose–response relationship, which characterizes the distribution of responses to different doses in a population of individual organisms.
2-4. With the lowest dose (6 mg/kg), 1 percent of the animals die. A normally distributed sigmoid curve such as this one approaches a response of 0 percent as the dose is decreased and approaches 100 percent as the dose is increased; but—theoretically—it never passes through 0 and 100 percent. However, the minimally effective dose 19 of any chemical that evokes a stated all-or-none response is called the threshold dose even though it cannot be determined experimentally. The sigmoid curve has a relatively linear portion between 16 and 84 percent.
There is a molecular target site (or sites) with which the chemical interacts to initiate the response. The production of a response and the degree of response are related to the concentration of the agent at the target site. The concentration at the site is, in turn, related to the dose administered. The third assumption in using the dose–response relationship is that there exists both a quantifiable method of measuring and a precise means of expressing the toxicity. For any given dose– response relationship, a great variety of criteria or endpoints of toxicity could be used.