By Robert K. Massie
In a piece of outstanding narrative strength, full of wonderful personalities and bright scenes of dramatic motion, Robert okay. Massie, the Pulitzer Prize–winning writer of Peter the good, Nicholas and Alexandra, and Dreadnought, elevates to its right old significance the function of sea strength within the profitable of the good War.
The important picture of this primary global conflict is of dust and ditchs, barbed cord, computing device weapons, poison gasoline, and slaughter. A iteration of ecu manhood was once massacred, and a wound was once inflicted on eu civilization that required the rest of the 20 th century to heal.
But with all its sacrifice, trench conflict didn't win the conflict for one aspect or lose it for the opposite. Over the process 4 years, the traces at the Western entrance moved scarcely in any respect; makes an attempt to wreck via led basically to the lengthening of the already unbearably lengthy casualty lists.
For the genuine tale of army upheaval, we needs to glance to the ocean. at the eve of the conflict in August 1914, nice Britain and Germany possessed the 2 maximum navies the realm had ever noticeable. whilst warfare got here, those fleets of dreadnoughts—gigantic floating castles of metal capable of hurl great shells at an enemy miles away—were able to try out their bad strength opposed to every one other.
Their struggles happened within the North Sea and the Pacific, on the Falkland Islands and the Dardanelles. They reached their climax while Germany, suffocated by way of an implacable naval blockade, determined to strike opposed to the British ring of metal. the end result was once Jutland, a sizeable conflict of fifty-eight dreadnoughts, each one the house of one thousand men.
When the German excessive Seas Fleet retreated, the kaiser unleashed unrestricted U-boat struggle, which, in its indiscriminate violence, introduced a reluctant the USA into the struggle. during this method, the German attempt to “seize the trident” by means of defeating the British army ended in the autumn of the German empire.
Ultimately, the distinguishing function of Castles of metal is the writer himself. the information, knowing, and literary strength Massie brings to this tale are exceptional. His portrayals of Winston Churchill, the British admirals Fisher, Jellicoe, and Beatty, and the Germans Scheer, Hipper, and Tirpitz are lovely of their veracity and artistry.
Castles of Steel is ready struggle at sea, management and command, braveness, genius, and folly. these types of components are given terrific scope through Robert okay. Massie’s exact and generally hailed literary mastery.
From the Hardcover edition.
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Extra resources for Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea
Lee et al.  recently addressed the problem of simultaneously performing redundant-via insertion and line-end extension in the post-routing stage under via-density consideration. Via-density rules constrain the maximum and minimum numbers of vias in each layout area of a predefined size. A twostage approach was proposed to solve this problem. In the first stage, the approach ignores the maximum via density rule and tries to insert redundant vias and line-end extended vias as many as possible.
MULTILEVEL ROUTING FRAMEWORK Our multilevel routing algorithm is inspired by the work in Chang and Lin [19, 74]. Nevertheless, different from the framework of Chang and Lin [19, 74] that integrates global routing, detailed routing, and resource estimation together at each level, we perform global routing in the coarsening stage, 38 Chapter 3 followed by layer/track assignment in an intermediate stage, and then detailed routing in the uncoarsening stage. At the coarsening stage, a fast congestion-driven pattern routing  is used for global routing level by level.
A voltage or a current change on one wire can thus interfere with the signal on the other wire. Crosstalk is an unwanted variation which makes the behavior of a manufactured circuit deviate from the expected response. The deleterious influences of crosstalk can be classified into two categories. One is malfunctioning, which makes the logic values of circuit nodes differ from what we desire; the other is timing change, which is caused by switching behavior. Therefore, in addition to routability and timing performance, an effective nanometer router must have the ability and the authority to enact wire spacing, layer switching, net reordering, and parallel wire reduction to correct crosstalk issues in routing (see Figure 3-1).