By Douglas J. Gould
This pocket-sized flipbook serves as a superior ancillary reference, overview, and learn software for human gross anatomy with a robust specialize in high-yield themes and presentation. It comprises the naked bones minimal crucial info wanted for direction and board examination assessment in a concise, quick-reference structure with tables and bullet-point textual content together with mnemonics (memory information) and an creation to terminology. this can be a just-the-facts reference that intuits how scholars quite often learn for assessments and offers this hugely distilled content material in a single simply moveable source.
Organized through zone with organ subsystems as applicable, Clinical Anatomy on your Pocket includes a strong index, which aids in having access to info. This notebook is perfect for scientific, dental, allied wellbeing and fitness, and graduate college scholars and acceptable for A&P classes in nursing, pre-pharmacy, pre-med, or kinesiology.
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Extra info for Clinical Anatomy for Your Pocket
Qxd 6/20/08 7:44 PM Page 33 Aptara Inc. Abdomen 2 INTRODUCTION The abdomen is that portion of the trunk inferior to the diaphragm and superior to the pelvis with which it is continuous. The abdomen extends inferiorly to the superior pelvic aperture. qxd 6/20/08 7:44 PM Page 34 Aptara Inc. 34 CLINICAL ANATOMY FOR YOUR POCKET Areas of the abdomen (continued) Area Quadrants (4) Inguinal canal Subinguinal space Structure Divided into quadrants by a horizontal (transumbilical) and a vertical (median) plane • 4–6 cm long, inferomedially directed passage extending between the deep and superficial inguinal rings • Walls of canal: • Anterior— external oblique aponeurosis • Posterior— transversalis fascia and medially the conjoint tendon • Roof— transversalis fascia and arching fibers of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis • Floor—iliopubic tract, inguinal ligament, and lacunar ligament from lateral to medial Space located deep to the inguinal ligament and iliopubic tract Significance • Quadrants: • Right and left upper • Right and left lower • Used for description of organ location or location of pathologic processes • Transmits the spermatic cord or round ligament of the uterus, ilioinguinal nerve, and the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve • One result of the oblique nature of canal is that the superficial and deep rings do not overlap; therefore, increases in intraabdominal pressure force the canal “closed” to prevent herniation Serves to connect the abdominopelvic cavity with the lower limb Additional Concepts Deep Inguinal Ring The deep inguinal ring, the internal opening of the inguinal canal, is an evagination of transversalis fascia, just superior to the middle of the inguinal ligament and immediately lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels.
Qxd 6/20/08 7:44 PM Page 46 Aptara Inc. Superior recess of omental bursa Liver Lesser omentum Falciform ligament Subhepatic space Pancreas Stomach Duodenum Transverse mesocolon Transverse colon Inferior recess of omental bursa Mesentery of small intestine Greater omentum Jejunum Ileum Visceral peritoneum Parietal peritoneum Rectovesical pouch Urinary bladder A Right lateral view Transverse colon Rectum Supracolic compartment Transverse mesocolon Phrenicocolic ligament Right colic flexure Left colic flexure Tenia coli Ascending colon Root of mesentery of small intestine Descending colon Right Right paracolic infracolic gutter space Left Left infracolic paracolic space gutter Infracolic compartment B Anterior view Supracolic compartment (greater sac) Omental bursa (lesser sac) Infracolic compartment (greater sac) FIGURE 2-1.
Ascending colon extends from cecum to right colic flexure 2. Descending colon extends from left colic flexure to sigmoid colon 4. qxd 6/20/08 7:45 PM Page 55 Aptara Inc. CHAPTER 2 | ABDOMEN 55 Structure of the large intestine (continued) Structure Description Rectum • 3rd part of large intestine • Dilated terminal portion— • Extends from the sigmoid the ampulla, retains feces colon at S3 to the anal until defecation canal • The proximal third of the • Possesses 3 lateral flexures rectum is covered by that correspond to 3 transperitoneum on the anterior verse rectal folds, which and lateral aspect, the correspond to thickenings middle third only has of the muscular wall peritoneum on the anterior surface, whereas the inferior 3rd is subperitoneal Significance Anal canal • 4th part of large intestine • The anorectal flexure is • Begins at the anorectal the primary structure that flexure at the level of the maintains fecal continence, pelvic diaphragm and it is a sharp bend maintained extends to the anus by tonic contraction of • Internally possesses anal puborectalis; its relaxation columns—longitudinal is necessary if defecation ridges joined at their base is to occur by anal valves, anal glands • Feces compressing the open into the anal sinuses anal sinuses causes (recesses formed by anal exudation of mucus that valves) lubricates the anal canal Features Teniae coli 3 longitudinally oriented bands of smooth muscle of the large intestine The longitudinal layer of smooth muscle surrounding the digestive tract is reduced to 3 bands over the large intestine Haustra Sacculations of the large intestine Slow the passage of feces through the large intestine Omental appendices Small, fatty projections hanging from the wall of the large intestine Allow for reduced friction with nearby structures during movement of the large intestine as feces passes through Additional Concept Differences between the Small and Large Intestine The large intestine has a larger diameter than the small intestine and possesses teniae coli, haustra and omental appendices, all of which are unique to the large intestine.