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Published via the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Special courses Series.

nobody might dispute that 1985 and 1986 have been certain occasions for cometary learn. In September 1985 ISEE-3 transited the magnetotail of comet Giacobini-Zinner and supplied the 1st close-up medical view of a cometary setting. part a yr later a global fleet of spacecraft outfitted with state of the art instrumentation gave us a "once-in-a-lifetime" examine comet Halley.

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Normalized distribution functions, (1), for cometary pickup ions. 0. 9. solar wind frame is then F(v, x) 3Q =- 2~ . i toP exp (-to) ( ~ )1-4'1-0' Xo 2taoh -l(x/xO)'I/p dz (tanh z/2)2a- p o o) t + t cosh . exp ( - -2z I P_1[(tt O)1/2 sinh z] } (9) where (V)3- 211 Y to = 3(3 - y)C ; t p a = = 211 3(3 - y)C = 3/(3 - y) p(4~ + (J - 1)/211 and M and U are the confluent hypergeometric functions of the first and second kind, respectively. 25. 75. 1 in Figures 1, 2, and 3, respectively. 9. The pickup distributions all have peaks in the density at the local maximum pickup energy.

Most of the contribution to these moments comes from integration over the observed energy range (typically 5 to 50 keV). To estimate the distribution function below (above) the observed energies we use exponential extrapolation (maxwellian form of f) where the temperature, kT, is derived from the lowest (highest) two values of the phase space density. 10 4 km from closest approach. 1 >. &........ 0600 I aroo

The determined and dedicated efforts of members of the ICE project team, in particular of R. Farquhar Who devised this mission, is to be connnended. Our work has been supported by NASA under contract NAS5-28704, grants NAGW101 and NGR 21-002-316, and by the BMFT, FGR, under contract RV14-B8/74. C. R. N. C. A. T. J. F. T. Young and R. D. Zwickl, Comet GiacobiniZinner: A Plasma Description, Science, in press, 1986. , B. U. , 254, 1967. Divine, Ne, Dust Flux and FlQence for ICE Encounters at Giacobini-Zinner, JPL Interoffice Memorandum 5137-84-164, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1984.

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