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By David Smith (auth.)

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Thus many of the sources of support on which the probation service could have drawn in working with young offenders, and which could have contributed to an environment in which crime was less likely to seem the only option, either dried up completely or were seriously depleted. g. Home Office, 1990; Sampson and Smith, 1992) were liable to be greeted with hollow laughter: where was the interagency cooperation or policy coherence in Whitehall, when it seemed that the efforts of one department were always at risk of being sabotaged by the contrary initiatives of another?

Treating the 1981 figures as 100, it shows a doubling ofthe number of crimes reported, and about an 80 per cent increase in the number recorded, compared with an increase of about 40 per cent in victirnisation. Thus, at least for crimes covered by the BCS, the official figures overstate the real increase: crime did increase during the 1980s, but not as fast as the official figures would suggest. 5, which suggest that there is nothing uniquely alarming about the British experience. These are based on a telephone survey and may therefore be less reliable than the BCS figures The Uses of Criminology 19 United States Canada Australia Netherlands Spain West Germany England and Wales France Scotland Belgium Norway Finland Switzerland onhem Ireland 35 Percentage of respondents Source: Barclay (1991).

In real terms, criminal justice spending in England and Wales doubled between 1978-9 and 1992-3, compared with increases of under 40 per cent in health and employment, and a decline in real terms in expenditure on transport. In absolute terms, criminal justice still accounts for a small proportion of public expenditure - about £9 billion for 1992-3, which is about one-third of the costs of the health service or education and science, and about one-eighth of the social security budget (Harnett, 1993).

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